Sensō hanayome 戦争花嫁

By Stephanie Gibbs

What are War Brides?

Sensō hanayome is the Japanese term for war bride. It is said to have been first coined to describe the Japanese women who married servicemen occupying Japan after World War II. The English term “war bride” most likely originated during World War I when British servicemen stationed in France married French women.[1] Although the word originated from World War I, it was in World War II that a large number of these relationships formed, consequently causing a mass migration of war brides from allied and ex-enemy countries to the United States.[2] Between 1947 and 1964, around 72,700 Asian women immigrated to the US, of which 45,853 consisted of Japanese women, making it the largest migration of Asian women to the US.[3] These Japanese war brides were such a large phenomenon that they inspired a whole new category in romance, including works written by James Michener such as “Tales of the South Pacific” (1946), “The Fires of Spring” (1949), “Return to Paradise” (1951), “Hawaii” (1959), and “Sayonara” (1953).[4] Who were these women who inspired an entire genre of romance stories, and more importantly, what are their stories and why did they marry American G.I.s?

Post-War Japan

In order to understand why Japanese women married American G.I.s, it is important to understand the living conditions and situation of post-World War II Japan. There is no question that Japan was heavily affected by the war, and when the first American troops landed in Yokohama in August 1945 they described it as a ghost town. In preparation for the arrival of the occupying forces as well as due to the aftermath of the war, everything had been boarded up, schools were closed down, and many females had been evacuated to the countryside.[5] One of the reasons for evacuating the Japanese girls was for fear of the incoming Americans, as the people had been indoctrinated to believe they were “Murdering Devils.” Some girls shaved their heads in an attempt to disguise themselves as boys, as they were taught that the American soldiers would rape and kill them.[6]

We were worried that foreign soldiers would rape us, but there was nothing of the sort

-Susie Wegner[7]

The American occupying forces were initially worried that the Japanese would meet them with retaliation, as they knew about the negative misconceptions directed towards them. In response to this, General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the occupation forces in Japan from 1945 till 1952, decreed many harsh punishments in order to deter soldiers from treating the Japanese badly. For example, the act of slapping or harming a Japanese person would result in five years in prison, and rape would result in the death penalty. Despite this, there were still a few cases of raping, looting, and murder, although this conduct was not widespread and was believed to have been greatly minimized. The majority of American soldiers were disciplined and showed goodwill, and the Japanese people were relieved and appreciative of the treatment they received.[8] The United States occupying forces were tasked with the mission to democratize Japan in order to prevent another militaristic government from taking control. A tactic they utilized was to show movies to spread American culture and normalize American values. In March of 1954, Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio visited Japan for their honeymoon and their friendliness and frankness, despite the Japanese media hounding them, contributed to the positive image of Americans to the Japanese.[9] Despite being sworn enemies just a few months ago, these unexpected circumstances resulted in trust and mutual understanding between the Japanese and Americans.

In Japan, there was no food. We had no way to survive

-Tami Young[10]

During this time, Japan had little to nothing. Stores were boarded up, food was all rationed, and deaths from malnutrition were not uncommon.[11] The Japanese begged for chewing gum, chocolate, and cigarettes from the American troops in order to trade them on the black market for food.[12] Although the soldiers could not always give the food the people wanted, these interactions with American troops were contributing factors for the positive relationship between them and the Japanese.

The end of the war was also a turning point for Japanese women. Plenty of men who were relied on as providers for their households were killed in the war, thus women suddenly found themselves having to provide for their families.[13] In order to make ends meet, some women turned to organized prostitution, which was managed by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare.[14] Two weeks after the end of the war, the Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA) was established to protect “good Japanese women” from American soldiers through the use of prostitutes.[15] These women had to register as prostitutes, which prevented these women from marrying American G.I. ‘s as there were restrictions set by the Americans and the Japanese government preventing marriage to prostitutes or criminals.[16] The lack of an economy and merchandise meant that besides prostitution, the main form of employment for women was to work within the U.S. military community. Opportunities for employment ranged from working at the post exchange (PX),[17] to offices and hospitals as a typist, housekeeper, interpreter, teletype operator, or secretary.[18] Through these jobs, Japanese women worked in very close proximity to young, single men in the army, which led them to develop close relationships and romantic involvements even if it meant being called a traitor by their own people.[19]

Why Did Japanese Women Marry American Men?

The war brides who then emigrated to America came from diverse backgrounds economically, and from all parts of Japan;[20] many of them came from large cities such as Tokyo and Yokohama as the General Headquarters (GHQ) had their major offices in those cities.[21] The first marriage between an American man and a Japanese woman was in March 1946, and was such big news that it was published in the Associated Press, an American news agency. On May 31 of the same year, the Records of GHQ Supreme Commander for the Allied Power unofficially accepted servicemen’s marriages to Japanese women as long as they abided by the Japanese Civil code to establish legality.[22] Despite the initial misconception that the Americans were bad people, the goodwill and kindness of the soldiers combined with the job opportunities for Japanese women within the U.S. military community were key to creating a positive relationship between the two nations. This in turn allowed for more meaningful relations to develop. However, hatred and racism did not simply cease to exist- especially so soon after the war. In the streets of Japan, simply walking alongside a foreigner was considered to be shameful and led to the women being ostracized.[23] As there was still a distrust of Americans,[24] family members worried for their daughters/sisters well-being, as well as for the social consequences she might face, such as being labeled a prostitute by others.[25] The traditional Japanese way of marriage was arranged marriage, where the family chose the husband for their daughter.[26] Contrary to modern-day Japan, marriage was not a private matter but a family matter, and even those over twenty years of age needed parental approval for their marriages.[27] There was also an importance in keeping the family bloodline pure Japanese.[28] As such, when a woman decided that she wanted to marry an American, there was great resistance from both their family and community.

An argument as to why, despite these factors, plenty of Japanese women chose to marry American soldiers is “nature versus nurture.”[29] As the number of Japanese women greatly outnumbered the number of Japanese men after the war, they had no choice but to look for other sources for romantic relationships. Additionally, the Japanese men were beaten down by the war and the American soldiers were comparably “taller, better dressed, and healthier.” When put next to Japanese men, it can be argued that American men might have seemed more attractive in terms of survival of the fittest.[30] Economic and emotional security were also powerful motivators,[31] as many women hoped marriage would lead to a more comfortable, modern life overseas.[32] The exchange rate between Japanese yen and U.S. Dollars (USD) heavily favored the USD post-World War II. At one point the exchange rate was 360 yen to the dollar, giving the Americans in Japan more spending power.[33] One war bride recounts that “American soldiers used to spend money so freely we thought that everyone in America had money. We thought it was a dream world.” Perhaps due to the Americans’ spending habits the people were led to believe that they were going to a world they had never seen before. “I thought that in America there’s lots of money. Everything is carefree, lots to eat. So I was very happy. Plenty to eat, plenty of clothes. I thought I was going to paradise.”[34] Rebelliousness might have been another reason as to why many women who married Americans had shown a taste for independence before marriage. Thus, marrying an American may have been more attractive, as it provided a more egalitarian relationship than is typical of Japanese marriages.[35]

Not every relationship with an American G.I. ended with the couple living together happily ever after. Women who dated American servicemen who were then left or chose to leave the relationship instead of marrying were called kizumono which translates to “defective goods”. This was because a woman’s chastity was the most crucial prerequisite of Japanese marriage at the time, meaning that these women had lost the prospect of having a “good marriage”.[36] At this time, there was an understanding that “once an American soldier goes, they never come back to Japanese women.”[37]

For those who had made it to the point of engagement, the process for American serviceman to get permission to marry was a long one, and could easily take several months or even over a year. The American government used this as a way to discourage interracial marriages and to ‘protect’ the young men. Paperwork needed to legally approve marriage included the fiancée’s koseki shohon, an official copy of the family registry which then had to be translated into English, a medical check, and a paper stating whether or not the fiancée was a security risk or a communist. The prospective wife also had to meet with the army chaplain for an interview, who often intended to discourage their marriage and demonstrate their incompatibility.[38] Sometimes even if paperwork had been properly filed, the commanding officers could block these marriages. To bypass these obstacles, some couples did a ‘shotgun marriage’, a situation in which the Japanese wife would get pregnant, thus making it easier for them to get approval to be wedded.[39]

1950’s America

The war brides migrated all around the U.S. starting in the late 1940s to predominantly the 1950s. However, their lives nor their transition to the U.S. was not easy. One of the obstacles they faced was the 1924 Immigration Act, which imposed strict restrictions on immigration from Europe and Asia. This prevented American servicemen from bringing their wives or fiancées into the United States. As the number of American servicemen with Japanese significant others increased, some servicemen turned to writing directly to their congressmen in the United States to gain admission for their Japanese wives or fiancées.[40] Their voices were heard as the War Brides Act of 1945 was eventually passed, giving temporary permission for soldiers to bring their Japanese significant others to the United States. Perhaps due to the massive popularity and increase in immigration, the Soldier Brides Act of 1946/47 extended the period of immigrating spouses. In 1952, the McCarran-Walter Act, also known as the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, ended Asian exclusion from immigrating to the United States, abolishing laws preventing Asians from becoming naturalized American citizens, and introduced a system of preferences based on skill sets and family reunification.[41] As a result, more Japanese wives of G.I. ‘s than ever before prepared to move to the United States, as can be seen from the (Table 1) below.[42]

Figure 1: Office of Immigration Statistics, Crawford, Hayashi, and Suenaga, Japanese War Brides in America: an Oral History, p. 15.

Some women attended schools taught by wives of the occupying forces on how to use American electronics, as well as how to raise children and apply makeup the American way.[43] This allowed servicemen to bring back their spouses with one less obstacle. Not only was the U.S. battling with how to treat their black citizens, but the treatment of other non-white races was also in question. In the beginning of the war, for fear of spies, Japanese Americans on the West Coast were forcibly removed from their homes and put into internment camps.[44] Though this action was motivated by irrational fear and patriotism for their country, it shows that the Japanese-Americans were treated differently simply because of their heritage. As is highlighted by the actions of the government, America can be described as volatile and apprehensive, especially in its treatment of racial minorities. Racial discrimination was yet another one of the hardships that Japanese war brides had to endure.

Accounts of the War Brides

I would like to introduce three women who became war brides, and how they experienced and navigated through their new lives in the United States differently.

The first war bride is Fumiko Ward. She was eighteen when the war ended,[45] and was nineteen when she began working at a PX in Sapporo, Hokkaido, where she met her husband, Louis Ward.[46] They eventually were married by an American preacher in an unofficial ceremony, as American marriages at the time were not legal and Japanese marriages were not recognized by the United States.[47] Unfortunately, Fumiko’s mother and family were against the marriage,[48] as women seen with Americans at the time were called ‘call girls’ and shunned.[49] Fumiko later learned that her decision to date an American had affected her younger sister’s chances at finding a suitor, as people were repulsed when they found out Fumiko was dating an American.[50] Louis’s family also responded negatively to their marriage and commented, “Think what your children would look like!”[51] A year after their unofficial wedding, Louis had to return to the United States to be treated for tuberculosis.[52] After he left, Fumiko gave birth to their son Erio and eight months later she learned that she had been granted an entry permit to the United States. Fumiko’s case is unique as she was granted relief from the Immigration Act of 1924, allowing her to enter in 1950 as a non-quota immigrant for permanent residence in the United States.[53] However, other paperwork and arrangements prevented her from leaving until December of 1950.[54] For Fumiko, leaving her homeland was not easy. She mentioned that the night before she was ready to depart to the U.S., she thought of staying in Japan as she knew she may never set foot on Japanese soil again. However, she also felt it was her duty to bring her son to the U.S. to be with her husband, and in the end continued with her plans to enter the United States.[55] Upon her arrival at the airport, she first experienced an act of kindness by a foreigner. Fumio recalls that a man in a cowboy hat saw that she was in need of a restroom to freshen up and change Erio’s diapers, and led her to the ladies restroom. After she finished, he looked at her ticket and walked them to her next gate.[56] However, racism was also prevalent from the moment she arrived. Shortly after landing, a little girl scoffed “Jap” at her, which horrified her, making her second-guess if bringing her son to America was a mistake.[57] Nonetheless, she completed her move to Huntington, West Virginia, a predominantly white community where her husband lived.[58] Fumiko was given the name ‘Suzie’ by her in-laws, as her Japanese name was difficult to pronounce for them. Though she tolerated it, she did not want an American name and especially more so after she found out ‘Suzie’ used to be the name of a cow the family had owned before.[59] Fumiko stated how she remembers her mother-in -law had built a gate between hers and Fumiko and Louis’s house in order to prevent her grandson Erio from entering her yard and home. Fumiko was powerless to do anything about this situation at the time.[60] Despite all this, Fumiko still felt that Louis’s family was trying to be nice to her.[61] She refrained from going out and would only shop once a month to reduce interactions with strangers, as the images of Japanese people were still heavily influenced by propaganda and the war. Though it was hurtful when occasionally strangers saw Fumiko out in public and turned their heads in disgust, she says she understood, as it was not long after the war. In spite of the racism and difficulties she had with her in-laws, Fumiko tried her best to smile at everyone and often got a smile back. Eventually, in 1954 their family moved into a better home in Ohio and she had her second child Mikiko.[62] She also came across four other Japanese women in the area and they became very close, meeting up often and sharing the culture they thought they had left forever at home. She described this time as happy.[63]

The second war bride is Toyoko Pier. Toyoko was born on February first of 1933 and was the eldest of six children in Tateyama, a city in Toyama prefecture that is now referred to as Toyama City. She was born as the forthcoming seventh generation family head, in a matrilineal family where the house and last name ‘Murakami’ was passed onto the eldest daughter generation after generation. Additionally, the husbands of the eldest daughters had always been arranged, meaning Toyoko had a fiancé.[64] At the age of nineteen, she moved to Tokyo on her own to work in a family friend’s restaurant. There, she took up another job working at a bar on the weekdays, which was also the location of her first contact with Americans as an army camp was stationed nearby. On the day of her twentieth birthday, Toyoko was supposed to come back to the family home for her wedding to her fiancé, but she did not go back. She reasoned that Tokyo was fun for her to live in and that she had met many young friends, including American soldiers. One of these friends whom she had met working at the bar was Alison, who eventually asked her out. Through him, Toyoko was exposed to American life and she was attracted to it. Alison also bought her anything she wanted because of the strength of the American dollar, and Toyoko responded positively to this as she did not like stingy men. When Toyoko decided to marry Alison, her family was astonished and her father was furious; Toyoko’s father was a former soldier in Manchuria during World War II and could not accept her marrying a former enemy.[65] In May 1954, their marriage permit was granted by the U.S. Army and they rushed to the American embassy, finally officiating their marriage.[66] Before leaving for the U.S., Alison recommended that he visited Toyoko’s family to announce their marriage. When they arrived, a party was thrown for them and Toyoko’s grandmother, the most powerful member in their household, accepted their marriage. However, Toyoko notes her father was still not supportive, even crying and apologizing to his dead comrades who fought in Manchuria for his daughter marrying the enemy[67]. After a thirteen-day trip on a boat to the United States, Toyoko realized that she did not know much about Alison or his family due to the language barriers between them. Her worries were unfounded, however, as his mother Hazel, her second husband, and Alison’s six other siblings all welcomed her with open arms.[68] Hazel had trouble pronouncing Toyoko’s name, often calling her “Tokyo” by accident, and so she gave her the American name “Terry”, which Toyoko liked very much.[69]

As can be seen from these two accounts, the ways in which the war brides experienced life in the U.S. were different. Though these two marriages were long-lasting, not all war brides were blessed with a happy, long-lasting marriage. In fact, there is a stigma that these marriages were unstable, and frequently ended in divorce. A dominant theme that appeared in these marriages was the powerlessness of the female, which was brought upon by language barriers and a lack of social support.[70] Because the idea of leaving Japan to marry an American scarcely gained full support of their families, the war brides felt they could not ask for support from them. Additionally, many war brides felt that they could not discuss the marriage difficulties they were facing with their family back in Japan, as it would cause their relatives to worry. Lack of skills also contributed to their powerlessness in the relationship, since many did not possess the skills to live individually even if they wanted to.[71]

Conclusion

War brides are each unique individuals, and therefore it is wrong to stereotype one person’s experiences as the experience of the whole group. However, the challenges they faced and the hopes they had in moving to a new country were universal. Their relationships faced discrimination and hate simply because of their status as former enemies, as well as for their race. These war brides were stranded, both physically and mentally, from being away from Japan, their culture, and their kin. They faced immense pressure to fit into a community in which they could barely speak the language and were fully aware that there was nowhere for them to return to. While many women were entranced by the idea of a better life in America, most did not get the paradise they envisioned. Despite all this, their actions of emigrating to the United States are a portrayal of human nature: to want to live a better life. The war brides are proof that humans can feel love even if they are taught to hate each other. These war brides unknowingly became ambassadors of their nation by showing kindness, understanding, and patience even when the odds were stacked against them.

[1] Tamura, Michi’s Memories, p. xiv.

[2] Tamura, Michi’s Memories, p. xv.

[3] Simpson, “‘Out of an Obscure Place’: Japanese Warbrides and Cultural Pluralism in the 1950s,” p. 51.

[4] Simpson, “‘Out of an Obscure Place’: Japanese Warbrides and Cultural Pluralism in the 1950s,” p. 66.

[5] Shukert and Scibetta, War Brides of World War II, p. 185.

[6] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 185.

[7] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:24:50-0:24:59.

[8] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 186.

[9] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 90.

[10] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:02:55-0:02:58.

[11] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 187.

[12] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 186.

[13] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 187.

[14] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 190.

[15] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:17:27-0:17:56.

[16] Strauss, “Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages.” p. 99.

[17] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took and Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 8.

[18] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, pp. 188-189.

[19] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 85.

[20] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 59.

[21] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 81

[22] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 89.

[23] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:17:09-0:17:24.

[24] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 188.

[25] Schnepp and Yui, “Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides,” p. 48.

[26] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 188.

[27] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 82.

[28] Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II, p. 194.

[29] Crawford, “Introduction: History That Affected the Lives of Japanese Women,” p. xix.

[30] Crawford, “Introduction: History That Affected the Lives of Japanese Women,” p. xx.

[31] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 61.

[32]  “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:034:50-0:34:55.

[33] Crawford, “How Lucky We Are—Miwako Cleve,” p. 34.

[34] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 58.

[35] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 62.

[36] Suenaga, “A Late Mover—Mitsu K. Connery,” p. 222.

[37] Crawford, “Doris the Volunteer—Hisa Feragen,” p. 20.

[38] Crawford, “A Hiroshima Survivor’s Love Story—Ayako Stevens,” p. 69.

[39] Crawford, “From Nagasaki to North Carolina—Nobuko Howard,” p. 57.

[40] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 10.

[41] Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State, “The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (The McCarran-Walter Act).”

[42] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 15.

[43] “The Lives of JapaneCse War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:34:28-0:34:45.

[44] Simpson, “‘Out of an Obscure Place’: Japanese Warbrides and Cultural Pluralism in the 1950s,” p. 54.

[45] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:07:29-0:07:30.

[46] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 8.

[47] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 9.

[48] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:32:27-0:32:31.

[49] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:22:40-0:22:55.

[50] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:23:00-0:23:29.

[51] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 12.

[52] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:33:00-0:33:12.

[53] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 10.

[54] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 10.

[55] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:35:29-0:36:14.

[56] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 10.

[57] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,”  p. 11.

[58] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:37:20-0:37:23.

[59] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 13.

[60] “The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1,” 0:38:00-0:38:29.

[61] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 11.

[62] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 12.

[63] Crawford, “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” p. 13.

[64] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 86.

[65] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 87.

[66] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 90.

[67] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 91.

[68] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 92.

[69] Hayashi, “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” p. 90.

[70] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 231.

[71] Glenn, Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service, p. 232.

References

Crawford, Miki Ward. “Introduction: History That Affected the Lives of Japanese Women,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, xiii–xxiii. Praeger, 2010.

Crawford, Miki Ward. “My Mother’s Story: It Took an Act of Congress—Fumiko Ward,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 5–16. Praeger, 2010.

Crawford, Miki Ward. “Doris the Volunteer—Hisa Feragen,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 17–28. Praeger, 2010.

Crawford, Miki Ward. “How Lucky We Are—Miwako Cleve,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 29–40. Praeger, 2010.

Crawford, Miki Ward. “From Nagasaki to North Carolina—Nobuko Howard,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 53–64. Praeger, 2010.

Crawford, Miki Ward. “A Hiroshima Survivor’s Love Story—Ayako Stevens,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 65–74. Praeger, 2010.

Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. Issei, Nisei, Warbride: 3 Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service. Temple University Press, 1986.

Hayashi, Katie Kaori. “No Regrets in My Life—Toyoko Pier,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 81–94. Praeger, 2010.

Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State. “The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (The McCarran-Walter Act).” Available here

Suenaga Shizuko. “A Late Mover—Mitsu K. Connery,” In Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History, ed. Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi and Suenaga Shizuko, 219–232. Praeger, 2010.

Schnepp, Gerald J. and Yui, Agnes Masako. “Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides.” American Journal of Sociology 61:1 (1955), 48–50.

Shukert, Elfrieda Berthiaume and Scibetta, Barbara Smith. War Brides of World War II. Presidio Press, 1988.

Simpson, Caroline Chung. “‘Out of an Obscure Place’: Japanese War Brides and Cultural Pluralism in the 1950s.” A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 10:3 (1998), 47–81.

Strauss, Anselm L. “Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages.” Marriage an Family Living 16:2 (1954), 99–106.

Tamura Keiko. Michi’s Memories: The Story of a Japanese War Bride. ANU Press, 2011.

“The Lives of Japanese War Brides in America: Part 1.” NHK WORLD PRIME, 2019.10.05 www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/tv/worldprime/20191005/5001259/.